More about Data Moves—and R

In the previous post (Smelling Like Data Science) we said that one characteristic of doing data science might be the kinds of things you do with data. We called these “data moves,” and they include things such as filtering data, transposing it, or reorganizing it in some way. The moves we’re talking about are not, typically, ones that get covered in much depth, if at all, in a traditional stats course; perhaps we consider them too trivial or beside the point. In stats, we’re more interested in focusing on distribution and variability, or on stats moves such as creating estimates or tests, or even, in these enlightened times, doing resampling and probability modeling.

Instead, the data-science-y data moves are more about data manipulation. [By the way: I’m not talking about obtaining and cleaning the data right now, often called data wrangling, as important as it is. Let’s assume the data are clean and complete. There are still data moves to make.] And interestingly, these moves, these days, all require technology to be practical.

DS GraphicThis is a sign that there is something to the Venn diagram definitions of data science. That is, it seems that the data moves we have collected all seem to require computational thinking in some form. You have to move across the arc into the Wankel-piston intersection in the middle.

I claim that we can help K–12, and especially 9–12, students learn about these moves and their underlying concepts. And we can do it without coding, if we have suitable tools. (For me, CODAP is, by design, a suitable tool.) And if we do so, two great things could happen: more students will have a better chance of doing well when they study data science with coding later on; and citizens who never study full-blown data science will better comprehend what data science can do for—or to—them.

At this point, Rob Gould pushed back to say that he wasn’t so sure that it was a good idea, or possible, to think of this without coding. It’s worth listening to Rob because he has done a lot of thinking and development about data science in high school, and about the role of computational thinking. Continue reading More about Data Moves—and R

Smelling Like Data Science

(Adapted from a panel after-dinner talk for the in the opening session to DSET 2017)

Nobody knows what data science is, but it permeates our lives, and it’s increasingly clear that understanding data science, and its powers and limitations, is key to good citizenship. It’s how the 21st century finds its way. Also, there are lots of jobs—good jobs—where “data scientist” is the title.

So there ought to be data science education. But what should we teach, and how should we teach it?

Let me address the second question first. There are at least three approaches to take:

  • students use data tools (i.e., pre-data-science)
  • students use data science data products 
  • students do data science

I think all three are important, but let’s focus on the third choice. It has a problem: students in school aren’t ready to do “real” data science. At least not in 2017. So I will make this claim:

We can design lessons and activities in which regular high-school students can do what amounts to proto-data-science. The situations and data might be simplified, and they might not require coding expertise, but students can actually do what they will later see as parts of sophisticated data science investigation.

That’s still pretty vague. What does this “data science lite” consist of? What “parts” can students do? To clarify this, let me admit that I have made any number of activities involving data and technology that, however good they may be—and I don’t know a better way to say this—do not smell like data science.

You know what I mean. Some things reek of data science. Google searches. Recommendation engines. The way a map app routes your car. Or dynamic visualizations like these: Continue reading Smelling Like Data Science

Model Shop! One volume done!

The Model Shop, Volume 1Hooray, I have finally finished what used to be called EGADs and is now the first volume of The Model Shop. Calling it the first volume is, of course, a treacherous decision.

So. This is a book of 42 activities that connect geometry to functions through data. There are a lot of different ways to describe it, and in the course of finishing the book, the emotional roller-coaster took me from great pride in what a great idea this was to despair over how incredibly stupid I’ve been.

I’m obviously too close to the project.

For an idea of what drove some of the book, check out the posts on the “Chord Star.”

But you can also see the basic idea in the book cover. See the spiral made of triangles? Imagine measuring the hypotenuses of those triangles, and plotting the lengths as a function of “triangle number.” That’s the graph you see. What’s a good function for modeling that data?

If we’re experienced in these things, we say, oh, it’s exponential, and the base of the exponent is the square root of 2. But if we’re less experienced, there are a lot of connections to be made.

We might think it looks exponential, and use sliders to fit a curve (for example, in Desmos or Fathom. Here is a Desmos document with the data you can play with!) and discover that the base is close to 1.4. Why should it be 1.4? Maybe we notice that if we skip a triangle, the size seems to double. And that might lead us to think that 2 is involved, and gradually work it out that root 2 will help.

Or we might start geometrically, and reason about similar triangles. And from there gradually come to realize that the a/b = c/d trope we’ve used for years, in this situation, leads to an exponential function, which doesn’t look at all like setting up a proportion.

In either case, we get to make new connections about parts of math we’ve been learning about, and we get to see that (a) you can find functions that fit data and (b) often, there’s a good, underlying, understandable reason why that function is the one that works.

I will gradually enhance the pages on the eeps site to give more examples. And of course you can buy the book on Amazon! Just click the cover image above.


The Index of Clumpiness, Part Three: One Dimension

In the last two posts, we talked about clumpiness in two-dimensional “star fields.”

  • In the first, we discussed the problem in general and used a measure of clumpiness created by taking the mean of the distances from the stars to their nearest neighbors. The smaller this number, the clumpier the field.
  • In the second, we divided the field up into bins (“cells”) and found the variance of the counts in the bins. The larger this number, the clumpier the field.

Both of these schemes worked, but the second seemed to work a little better, at least the way we had it set up.

We also saw that this was pretty complicated, and we didn’t even touch the details of how to compute these numbers. So this time we’ll look at a version of the same problem that’s easier to wrap our heads around, by reducing its dimension from 2 to 1.  This is often a good strategy for making things more understandable.

Where do we see one-dimensional clumpiness? Here’s an example:

One day, a few years ago, I had some time to kill at George Bush Intercontinental, IAH, the big Houston airport. If you’ve been to big airports, you know that the geometry of how to fit airplanes next to buildings often creates vast, sprawling concourses. In one part of IAH (I think in Terminal C) there’s a long, wide corridor connecting the rest of the airport to a hub with a slew of gates. But this corridor, many yards long, had no gates, no restaurants, no shoe-shine stands, no rest rooms. It was just a corridor. But it did have seats along the side, so I sat down to rest and people-watch.

Continue reading The Index of Clumpiness, Part Three: One Dimension

The Index of Clumpiness, Part Two

Last time, we discussed random and not-so-random star fields, and saw how we could use the mean of the minimum distances between stars as a measure of clumpiness. The smaller the mean minimum distance, the more clumpy.

Star fields of different clumpiness, from K = 0.0 (no stars are in the clump; they’re all random) to K = 0.5 to K = 1.0 (all stars are in the big clump)

What other measures could we use?

It turns out that the Professionals have some. I bet there are a lot of them, but the one I dimly remembered from my undergraduate days was the “index of clumpiness,” made popular—at least among astronomy students—by Neyman (that Neyman), Scott, and Shane in the mid-50s. They were studying Shane (& Wirtanen)’s catalog of galaxies and studying the galaxies’ clustering. We are simply asking, is there clustering? They went much further, and asked, how much clustering is there, and what are its characteristics?

They are the Big Dogs in this park, so we will take lessons from them. They began with a lovely idea: instead of looking at the galaxies (or stars) as individuals, divide up the sky into smaller regions, and count how many fall in each region.

Continue reading The Index of Clumpiness, Part Two

The Index of Clumpiness, Part One

1000 points. All random. The colors indicate how close the nearest neighbor is.

There really is such a thing. Some background: The illustration shows a random collection of 1000 dots. Each coordinate (x and y) is a (pseudo-)random number in the range [0, 1) — multiplied by 300 to get a reasonable number of pixels.

The point is that we can all see patterns in it. Me, I see curves and channels and little clumps. If they were stars, I’d think the clumps were star clusters, gravitationally bound to each other.

But they’re not. They’re random. The patterns we see are self-deception. This is related to an activity many stats teachers have used, in which the students are to secretly record a set of 100 coin flips, in order, and also make up a set of 100 random coin flips. The teacher returns to the room and can instantly tell which is the real one and which is the fake. It’s a nice trick, but easy: students usually make the coin flips too uniform. There aren’t enough streaks. Real randomness tends to have things that look non-random.

Here is a snap from a classroom activity: Continue reading The Index of Clumpiness, Part One

Capture/Recapture Part Two

Trying to get yesterday’s post out quickly, I touched only lightly on how to set up the various simulations. So consider them exercises for the intermediate-level simulation maker. I find it interesting how, right after a semester of teaching this stuff, I still have to stop and think how it needs to work. What am I varying? What distribution am I looking at? What does it represent?

Seeing how the two approaches fit together, yet are so different, helps illuminate why confidence intervals can be so tricky.

Anyway, I promised a Very Compelling Real-Life Application of This Technique. I had thought about talking to fisheries people, but even though capture/recapture somehow is nearly always introduced in a fish context, of course it doesn’t have to be. Here we go:

Human Rights and Capture/Recapture

I’ve just recently been introduced to an outfit called the Human Rights Data Analysis Group. Can’t beat them for statistics that matter, and I really have to say, a lot of the explanations and writing on their site is excellent. If you’re looking for Post-AP ideas, as well as caveats about data for everyone, this is a great place to go.

One of the things they do is try to figure out how many people get killed in various trouble areas and in particular events. You get one estimate from some left-leaning NGO. You get another from the Catholics. Information is hard to get, and lists of the dead are incomplete. So it’s not surprising that different groups get different estimates. Whom do you believe?

Continue reading Capture/Recapture Part Two